Prostate cancer is the second-most diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. It is also the fifth leading cause of death in men. When a patient is referred to a pathologist due to the presence or suspicion of prostate cancer, a pathologist may take a needle core biopsy, which produces six to twelve slides of prostate tissue. The pathologist then stains the tissue (usually using a hematoxylin and eosin stain) and analyzes the tissue samples using a Whole Slide Scanner. The scanner digitizes physical slides into high resolution giga-pixel images. As the shortage of pathologists continues, remaining pathologists are left to analyze more samples than before. Pathologists also face significant inter-observer variability. Thus, the use of artificial intelligence (AI) can drastically increase the productivity and impact of a single pathologist. Researchers across the globe are inventing new machine learning algorithms to detect and classify prostate tissue. This literature review explains how artificial intelligence is being used to detect prostate cancer. After reading over 400 papers, we narrowed our pool of papers down to 142 relevant papers. We classified all machine learning results and methods into 11 different categories (see figure in uploaded PDF). Papers reported algorithm performance according to many different metrics, but we determined that Kappa values, Area under the Curve values, and Accuracy values are the most meaningful metrics. Some papers used a binary classification method to classify tissue, and some papers used a multi-class method. All relevant algorithms were categorized according to their methods and performance. We conclude that pathologists will not be replaced by machine learning algorithms; however, AI can enhance the performance and efficiency of pathologists. An increase in pathologists' effectiveness could improve access to healthcare in underdeveloped areas and emergent nations.
University / Institution: Brigham Young University
Format: In Person
SESSION C (1:45-3:15PM)
Area of Research: Health & Medicine
Faculty Mentor: Dennis Della Corte
Location: Sill Center Conference Room (1:45pm)