Iatrogenic hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is the most serious acute complication in insulin-treated diabetes and it remains the limiting factor in maintaining proper glycemic control. The brain, and especially the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), plays a crucial role in sensing hypoglycemia and initiating the physiological "counterregulatory" hormone responses to correct it. However, both recurrent exposure to hypoglycemia and longstanding diabetes can impair the mechanisms that normally correct the fall in blood glucose levels. Our laboratory utilizes a combination of neuroscience (microdialysis, microinjection, optogenetics), metabolic (glucose clamps), genetic (targeted knockdown or overexpression) and molecular biology (qRT-PCR, westerns, immunohistochemistry) techniques to identify the neural mechanisms that are involved in the detection of hypoglycemia and how these central sensing mechanisms are impaired following recurring exposure to hypoglycemia and in diabetes.
Students will have the opportunity to work alongside one of our staff to learn techniques in rodent survival surgery and post-operative animal care. They will work closely with members of our research team to perform glucose clamp and microdialysis studies. In addition, they will also have the opportunity to learn various biochemical assays and molecular biology techniques
Student Learning Outcomes & Benefits
Students will gain a basic understanding of diabetes pathology and about the complications that arise from insulin treatment. In addition, they will gain a better understanding of the complex brain circuits that are involved in regulating the hormone responses to hypoglycemia and how they are affected by diabetes and exposure to low glucose. In the lab, the students will have an opportunity to learn basic surgical techniques (implanting vascular catheters and some stereotaxic surgeries) as well as how to conduct metabolic clamp studies. Additionally, the students will gain experience in critical thinking and in preparing a scientific presentation.
School of Medicine
I believe that students learn best through first-hand experience and working through a problem. In general, I believe that as a mentor, our job is to provide the students with the necessary background and support to conduct their research, but also to provide them with the guidance that they need when they encounter obstacles. As mentors, I think the best thing we can do is to challenge our trainees to think for themselves and to guide them to the answers they seek and not to give them the answers. I meet with students on a one-to-one basis at least once per week to go over their projects and also have them prepare journal clubs to practice speaking in front of an audience. For their final presentations, I review the presentation with the students individually to provide feedback and then have them present it to the lab for critiques.